Artificial Satellites are equipment used for data transferring in all over the world. People aren’t informed about this type of technology which brought the revolution in our lives. The weather forecast or the mobile phones, internet navigation, discovering mineral areas etc are realized only by launching 4000 artificial satellites in orbit. Artificial satellites are constructed by human being, which are located 2000 till 35000 km away from Earth surface.
These satellites come around the Earth. The first satellite sent in orbit was Sputnik 1. It was sent in October 4, 1957. After it there were sent too many satellites.
After finishing their mission, the satellites decrease their highness coming down on Earth atmosphere. There are cases where the satellites reach Earth surface without being dissolved. But in these cases these entrances on Earth surface are controlled by human being, who command the moment when it is going to fall. Less than 10% of satellites around the Earth are still functional. The others are just garbage moving in orbit. The satellite’s weight varies between kg and tones.
Satellites are classified in some categories depending on their mission. There are 6 types of satellites which can be used for : 1. Scientific studies, 2. Weather forecast 3. Telecommunication , 4. Internet , 5. Navigation , 6. Military aims
Science satellites collect data for different analysis. Some of them collect data for Earth space composition, some others register data for atmospheric changes on Earth. Some others just survey the planets, the Moon and the Sun. Weather satellite survey atmospheric conditions in a large area helping the scientists to study and to predict the weather. These satellites help a lot pilots, ship commanders etc. to see in this way the atmospheric changes in different areas of Earth. Telecommunication satellites give signals for radio, TV, internet etc.
In different spaces toward Earth. A communication satellite can give and take television signals and thousand of telephonic calls at the same time. These satellites are located near any space station. Televisions and telephone companies have to pay to use these satellites. Navigation satellites help pilots, drivers and ship commandants to find their position on Earth. These satellites are used even by tourists when they are in foreign and unknown places. These satellites send signals to devices used on ships, cars, watches and airplanes.
Satellites which survey Earth are used to control our planet and the changes on time. These satellites change their view depending from different moments. The computers located on Earth, analyze the photos send from the satellites to understand the changes and to locate mineral deposits, forests and ground water resources . Another satellite called Aqua study the oceans and their movements on Earth directions. Military satellites include weather, communication, navigation and these are used for military purposes.
Some military satellites named “spy satellites” are able to distinguish the missiles, ships trajectories, in and under water. Every satellite has its own characteristics based on their mission. For example, a satellite whose mission is to study the universe has a telescope or the satellite that forecast the weather has cameras so it can photograph the clouds.
Satellites are brought on space by rackets which after letting the satellites free, fall on oceans. The satellite may stay on space for a long time without the intervention of humans. Most of satellites are controlled by a center located on Earth. The center communicate with it through special radios. Satellites have solar panels.
They are directed toward the sun from which they take energy and meanwhile use the antennas to catch the commands from Earth. In most of cases the satellites may be controlled and programmed from Earth. If there are some problems or the satellite gives wrong signals, it can take commands to switch off.
Satellites have different directions, creating different angles with equator. They can have different forms as circular, elliptical etc. depending on their mission. They have different speed of rotation which has equal speed as Earth speed. Thousand signals are sent in every second on Earth, making our life easier.